The Massive Scam of Income Based Repayment

CNBCIn response to this article on CNBC today:

https://www.cnbc.com/2018/11/07/rehabilitation-gives-student-loan-borrowers-a-second-chance-at-a-cost.html

Let’s review a few of the important points of our main character, Scott:

1.) Scott graduated with $35,000 in total debt. OK! NOT BAD.

2.) Scott made payments for 10 years, but the balance went up to $55k. NOT GREAT, BOB.

3.) Scott couldn’t make payments for a while, then “rehabilitated” his loan. MAKES SENSE.

4.) Scott now pays $6,300 a year, the balance is going UP every month, owes $130k, and declared bankruptcy which will not help his loan situation at all. WTF!

This story highlights the massive scam of income based repayment. We’ve looked at this problem before:

https://graduatefree.com/2014/11/21/income-based-repayment-and-debt-forgiveness/

and

https://graduatefree.com/2015/09/16/is-the-public-service-loan-forgiveness-plan-a-good-idea/

In that last linked article I said:

These plans often have payments lower than the interest accruing, so the balance on your student loans can actually GO UP over time. This essentially makes you dependent on loan forgiveness as your only way out of debt.

This was one reason why these student loans reminded me of the “negative amortization loans” of the mortgage meltdown.

Even if Scott gets his loans forgiven, he will have paid many multiples of his original borrowed amount ($6k a year x 10 or 20 years, plus the payments he made for 10 years, plus the income tax hit). And again, there isn’t any way out. If you default, the government will withhold basic social safety nets designed for the poor.

This is the payday lending industry re-imagined.

This is indentured servitude.

Please be careful out there.

 

#TheAdultStudent

hands-girl-vintage-student.jpgOne thing we’ve noticed is that grad students are often bifurcated into students recently out of undergrad (in their early/mid 20’s) and second career students that are typically 15-20 years older. This is one reason the average age of a Denver Seminary student is 32 years old.

This segment of “Adult Students” is getting more attention then they have in the past, including an article in the Wall Street Journal, for a couple of reasons:

  • We’ve documented that older students are more vulnerable to high levels of student loan debt: Students over 31 years of age are significantly (almost 3x) more likely to borrow high levels of debt (over $50k)
  • It’s a larger pool then we thought: Some 41% of students enrolled in higher education are 25 or older.
  • 38% of these older students drop out in their first year. Students that borrow money then fail to earn their degree are among the biggest fatalities of the student loan programs.

Goldie Blumenstyk is a leading voice in this area. A couple of her resources to highlight:

Additional Layer of Risk

parents defualt rateI believe one of the most important ideas in understanding debt is what we call “Layers of Risk”. One layer that I have not taken the time to fully consider was brought to my attention in an article today. That layer of risk is student borrowers with children, and specifically single parents:

  • Nearly 50% of undergrad students borrowers defaulted
  • Of those, 70% were single parents
  • 10% of borrowers are single parents, but they represent 40% of all defaults

These stats also include additional factors and layers of risk. For example, as the article points out if you’re a parent of a child under 3, a person of color, or enrolled in a for-profit school your default rates are even higher.

Additionally, many of these defaulted loans are for students that were unable to complete their degree so they are stuck with a non-bankruptable debt and no degree with which to increase their earning potential.

Any system that disproportionately penalizes the most vulnerable needs to be reformed.

Two Causes of Poverty

powell-poverty-quoteWhat causes poverty? Thinking about this question can teach us a lot about how to create personal economic mobility. Those are big words for get out of debt, build an emergency fund, save for retirement, and create stability for our children.

In my post-election reading, I came across this long interview (actually made and posted before the election).  The author makes a case that endemic poverty is caused by two main factors:

  • Social Structures That Harm. These are cultural forces that are weighted against the poor and against upward mobility. These aren’t unique to our society, the author of Proverbs 22 points out as a matter of fact that the “The poor are always ruled over by the rich.” In the past I have used the term “Risks” to bring personal awareness to some of these structures. Examples of these cultural forces include redlining neighborhoods, the town factory closing, poor educational systems, payday lenders, having bad parents, and corrupt governments. You might call these “Things that happen to you.”
  • Personal Choices. The interviewee calls this “helping people make better moral choices.” This is the personal responsibility that is required to change your life. Proverbs also address this in a number of says such as “Wealth from get-rich-quick schemes quickly disappears; wealth from hard work grows over time.” Examples of “Things you do to yourself” include substance abuse, not living on a budget, spending on wants vs needs, not deferring gratification, a poor work ethic, and having a negative attitude.

Here are two personal questions to ponder:

Do my thoughts and beliefs lean one way or the other?

One of the points the interview makes is that Liberal leaning folks tend to over-emphasize the social structures and those that bend Conservative tend to over-emphasize the personal responsibility.* This makes me think that you and I probably overemphasize one side or the other in our thinking and beliefs:

Do I think poor people are lazy? Do I believe it’s impossible to get out of debt in today’s society? Do I tell people that there aren’t any good jobs out there? Do I complain about my lack of money while wearing these sick new Jordans? Do I define my employability by the time I was laid off? Do I believe that employer really isn’t looking for someone of my age, sex, or color?

The biases and beliefs I carry will dramatically affect my ability to change my story.

Where is my personal greatest return on investment?

If you are called to change the social structures, I encourage you to go for it. I believe these are evil institutions of oppression and that Jesus was directly addressing these when he said the Kingdom of Heaven is advancing and the “Gates of Hell” won’t prevent good from eventually breaking these down.

However, practically for us today complaining and worrying about these cultural forces isn’t helpful. To personally change, we need to First recognize the cultural forces so I can artfully navigate around those to the best of my ability and Second accept the moral responsibility for that which God has entrusted me, managing my life.

———————————–

*Footnote:  An interesting side note on this I heard this week. The fundamental difference between a liberal and conservative world view is the condition of mankind. A liberal worldview leans humanist, meaning that given the right circumstances humans will move toward goodness. A conservative worldview lends itself toward humans in their nature doing the wrong things.

As I understand it, the Biblical worldview is more centric, that humans are created good and to do good (“In the image of God”) but that because we are infected with the virus of sin we will inevitably do what we don’t want to do (Romans 7:15-20).

DEBT AS SOCIAL JUSTICE

words on justice.jpg Articles like this make me angry when they use a college education as the “carrot on a stick” that makes student loans a good thing:

“Student loan debt is also an investment in your future. Simply put, you will be more employable and earn more with a college degree.”

I believe this is a straw man. The argument for or against a college degree is irrelevant to the structural problems that student debt brings. I believe that student loan debt is a social problem, a social justice problem even, because it is most egregiously harmful to very specific segments of our society.

  • 1 out of 3 student loan borrowers don’t graduate. This immediate invalidates the ‘college is worth the debt’ argument. If as many as a third of borrowers aren’t graduating, they are stuck with debt they can’t get out of and no increased earning potential. There is myriad of reasons they might not be graduating, including being poorly trained for college, health, financial, family instability, substance abuse (yo Madison!), and more. More on that here.
  • If I default, the government will withhold low-income benefits. Because the government is the debt collector, if I default on my student loan debt the government will withhold my tax returns (including Earned Income Tax Credit and Social Security benefits). These social safety nets aren’t a big deal if I’m wealthy, but it’s devastating if I’m poor. Between the socio-economic classes (rich and poor), who is more likely to default?
  • The highly indebted are borrowing even more. We’ve discussed before that there is a bifurcation of healthy borrowers and unhealthy borrowers. The healthy borrowers borrowing is remaining level, but the unhealthy borrowers are borrowing even more than before. Some estimates put these borrowers at around 17% of all borrowers. In my experience, this sounds about right. We know that if you are female, of color, or an older student you are significantly more likely to be a highly indebted borrower.
  • Borrowing to make an “Investment” is extremely dangerous. Quoting a 15% financial rate of return is just lying if it doesn’t take into account borrowers who don’t graduate and the higher interest rates and fees on defaulted student loans. If you can’t bankrupt out of a ‘bad investment’, it can cause decades of pain for defaulted borrowers. High returns don’t mitigate risk. This is why the lottery is a bad investment. A potential 15% ROI doesn’t offset the inherent risks of student loan borrowing.

So to summarize, “it’s okay to have student loan debt!” as long as you’re intelligent (with an aptitude for intellectual studies, healthy family structures, and safety nets that allow you to graduate), are not poor, and are not a woman or minority.

There are a variety of potential improvements that could be made on the legislative level (realistic hard cap on borrowing, lower interest rates, larger Pell grants, allowing bankruptcy), but these are out of our ability to change right now.

Instead, let’s focus on personal behaviors I can change RIGHT NOW to reduce my risk of being a statistic. These include borrowing as little as possible, fully understanding my current situation and risks, and building healthy personal financial habits.

Debt and risk taking – article reflection

AtlanticDoes debt influence risk taking? In this article on Millennial entrepreneurs, that is one of the propositions:

The answer begins with more debt and less risk-taking. The number of student borrowers rose 89 percent between 2004 and 2014, as Lettieri said in his testimony. During that time, the average debt held by student borrowers grew by 77 percent. Even when student debt is bearable, it can still shape a life, nudging young people toward jobs that guarantee a steady salary. Entrepreneurship, however, is a perilous undertaking that doesn’t offer such stability. There is also some evidence that young people’s appetite for risk-taking has declined at the same time that their student debt has grown. More than 40 percent of 25-to-34-year old Americans said a fear of failure kept them from starting a company in 2014; it 2001, just 24 percent said so.

Assuming that hypothesis is true, what risks are required for those going into Occupation Ministry?

Are church planters inherent risk takers? Does a candidate need a willingness to relocate? Do financial constrains restrict a pastors ability to start with a small congregation? Are church staff less likely to stand up to improprieties in leadership if they are financially stressed?